Bates D, Maechler M. Linear mixed-effects models using S4 classes. Clinical, experimental and theoertical aspects. An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry. Basic Books; New York: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. Brock RL, Lawrence E. Marriage as a risk factor for internalizing disorders: Clarifying scope and specificity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Social origins of depression: A study of psychiatric disorder in women. Parent—child relations and the etiology of depression: A review of methods and findings.
Sociological Methods and Research. Manual for administration and scoring. University of Minnesota Press; Minneapolis: The inventory of home stimulation. The emergence of developmental psychopathology. Some thoughts on its evolution. Toward a neuroscience of attachment. Cassidy J, Shaver PR, editors.
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Toward a comprehensive developmental model for major depression in women. American Journal of Psychiatry. Turning points in the life course: Why change matters to the study of crime. Continuity of adaptation in the second year: The relationship between quality of attachment and later competence. Mikulincer M, Florian V.
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Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Recovering from conflict in romantic relationships: Developmental systems and psychopathology. Crime and deviance over the life course: The salience of adult social bonds. With long-term relationships you should be less concerned with characteristics that reduce the likelihood of conflict and pay more attention to finding someone who has a similar style of dealing with conflict. Because there is always going to be some. The question is how you deal with those problems. What Gottman has found is that people who have clashing meta-emotional styles, they have a really tough time dealing with conflict.
Even minor annoyances tend to become huge fights, because one partner wants to express and the other partner thinks you should hold it in and then all of a sudden it explodes. To learn the 4 most common relationship problems — and how to fix them — click here. So communication is good.
Which leads us to another counterintuitive finding….
According to the scientists, spouses who complain to each other the most, and complain about the least important things, end up having more lasting relationships. In contrast, couples with high negativity thresholds—they only complain about serious problems—are much more likely to get divorced. In a sense, you can look at complaining and fighting in an intimate relationship as just ways of showing you care. No relationship is trouble-free. To learn how to win every argument, click here. Infatuation is quick, romantic and easy. He falls in love with her in seconds. He sees her and he just knows.
He walks over and starts talking in iambic pentameter. Thinking about soulmates and being obsessed with limerence is very romantic. Her work is filled with all sorts of sad case studies of people who talk about the high and how at a certain point, they realized it was leading them astray. It was a pure fantasy but it was hard to shake it off. Limerence is chemical fiction. The purest way to distinguish between limerence and love is: Am I saying you should have an arranged marriage? Going into a long-term relationship focused on limerence leads to disappointment.
But people in arranged marriages have no such illusions. And so they work. And so it works. Arranged marriages sound weird but they have the right attitude: But if you do the work, it pays off over the long haul. To learn the science behind how to be a good kisser, click here. Okay, lots of talk so far about hard work. Is there a way to be more successful in your career and more successful in your relationship? What does a lot of research say produces success in school and career? It works in relationships, too. Do you want devotion? To learn more about grit from leading expert Angela Duckworth, click here.
Monitoring behavior is an aspect of possessive jealousy. Some items of the Facebook jealousy scale address online monitoring behavior such as checking the partner's profile on a regular basis or adding the partner's friends to the own profile to keep tabs on the partner. It seems likely that people who monitor their partner in various ways should also be more likely to experience jealousy when seeing rather harmless events such as public conversations of the partner on an SNS with persons of the opposite sex.
However, as we argued above, it is also socially more accepted to visit the partner's profile. SNS provide an opportunity to unobtrusively monitor the partner. This opportunity should be used by individuals who also tend to monitor their partner via other ways. If monitoring the partner on a SNS is more socially accepted, people should be more likely to engage in SNS monitoring behavior than in traditional monitoring behavior. Therefore, we also compare the levels of traditional and SNS monitoring behavior.
An open research question is formulated:. In addition to the time spent on the SNS, we expect that the psychological meaning and the type of use of the SNS may be more important predictors of experienced SNS jealousy. Tufekci called the latter purpose grooming. Grooming involves browsing the profiles of friends and thereby increases the chance to encounter information that may evoke jealousy.
We further want to extend the work by Muise et al. Christofides, Muise, and Desmarais reported that need for popularity was related to self-disclosure on the SNS. People with a high need for popularity want to create an idealized image on the SNS. Being in a happy relationship is for many people part of such an image Zhao et al. People with a high need for popularity might therefore also be more sensitive to cues that threaten this part of their self-presentation.
They might be especially sensitive to activities of their partner on a SNS that may harm the idealized relationship image they like to present. These are public at least within the circle of friends and acquaintances, and such public detections of transgressions are especially damaging for the relationship Afifi et al. Individuals with a high need for popularity should therefore be more likely to experience SNS jealousy. We argue that self-esteem has a moderating rather than a direct effect and expect that the link between need for popularity and SNS jealousy is qualified by self-esteem.
Jealousy develops in relationship threatening situations. According to Afifi et al. Such a threat should be perceived as more severe by people with a low self-esteem. People with a high self-esteem usually have more trust in their self-worth and consequently also in the love of their partner. Therefore, self-esteem is an important moderator when it comes to romantic relationships. In general, low self-esteem individuals cope less successfully with various stress-situations in the relationship Cameron et al. The same is expected in the context of SNS jealousy.
More specifically, we expect that the link between need for popularity and SNS jealousy is more pronounced for individuals with low self-esteem. For instance, when someone's partner leaves a comment at the profile of a member of the opposite sex, those with low self-esteem who additionally have a high need for popularity might be more threatened and experience a higher level of SNS jealousy.
Individuals with high self-esteem on the other hand are more self-assured and should not feel threatened so easily. Apart from the specific effects of personality characteristics and SNS use, we also expect that SNS jealousy is influenced by relationship satisfaction. Barelds and Barelds-Dijkstra found that reactive jealousy was positively related to relationship quality, whereas anxious jealousy was negatively related to relationship quality.
They also expected possessive jealousy to be negatively related to relationship quality, but this prediction was not confirmed.
The SNS jealousy scale assesses the reactions on ambiguous and potentially threatening SNS behaviors, but not the reactions on actual cheating. Thus, it does not really measure reactive jealousy but covers mainly aspects of possessive and anxious jealousy. Therefore, we expect a negative relationship between SNS jealousy and relationship satisfaction. Prior research on Facebook use and romantic relationships has focused on the negative effects Muise et al.
These studies found that SNS are especially useful for maintaining bridging capital, that is, weaker ties with acquaintances. However, there were also positive effects on bonding capital, strong ties with close friends. Therefore, we think that SNS use can also strengthen romantic relationships. Mod also found that people publicly display their affection on SNS and that partners value these public signs of affection These findings are based on interviews with 11 SNS users.
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We want to examine in a broader sample whether SNS use has also positive effects on romantic relationships. We call this scale SNS relationship happiness for the remainder of the paper. SNS happiness should for a great deal be determined by relationship satisfaction. If an individual is overall satisfied with the relationship, the individual is also more likely to experience positive emotions whilst browsing the favorite SNS. SNS use for grooming is expected to have the strongest impact because grooming involves browsing of the profiles of friends and the partner.
This might seem counterintuitive at the first glance because we also expected a positive relationship between grooming and SNS jealousy. The direction of the emotion is determined by the information found on the SNS, but people who frequently browse the profiles of friends are more likely to encounter information about the partner in wall postings or pictures than people who use SNS primarily for self-presentation.
People who use the SNS for grooming should be more likely to experience SNS relationship happiness while browsing, for instance when they encounter that their partner talked about the relationship with friends or has uploaded pictures showing the couple together. Need for popularity should also predict SNS relationship happiness. People who find it more important to look popular on the SNS, should become more happy if their partner publicly displays positive aspects of the relationship.
Self-esteem has been found to moderate the effects of SNS use on bridging capital Ellison et al. Individuals with low self-esteem gained more than individuals with high self-esteem. The effects of SNS use on bonding capital were less strong and not moderated by self-esteem. Therefore, the last hypothesis is:. Of those, 28 males and 75 females were involved in a romantic relationship.
Completing the survey that contained various personality measures and questions on SNS use took about half an hour. Only the data of respondents with a relationship and the variables relevant for the current hypotheses are reported in this paper. Respondents were asked how often they logged in several times a day, daily, several times a week, once a week, several times a month, less often.
Eleven items assessed what people actually did on the SNS. Five items referred to self-presentation and profile maintenance e. The Facebook jealousy scale by Muise et al. Only respondents whose partner had a profile on a SNS answered these questions. To assess the positive consequences of SNS use for romantic relationships, five items were created. This time, they indicated their likelihood to experience positive emotions after certain behaviors of their partner.
The behaviors were taken from the SNS jealousy scale and reformulated such that the subject was now the target of the action. Three items in the style of Pfeiffer and Wong's behavioral jealousy subscale assessed traditional monitoring behavior. The goal was to contrast the socially accepted behavior of browsing the partners profile with socially unaccepted behaviors.
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The SNS jealousy scale contains some items that explicitly address monitoring behavior. These four items e. Trait jealousy was measured with one item. Need for popularity was measured with seven items from the popularity scale by Santor, Messervey, and Kusumakar Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg scale Rosenberg, Respondents agree their agreement with the statements on a 7-point scale. Table 1 displays the means and standard deviations as well as the intercorrelations between the measures. Note that the scales did not assess the likelihood of events e.
The scores on monitoring behavior indicate that about half of the participants reported that they engage in monitoring behavior at least every now and then. In contrast, the scores for SNS monitoring behavior were much higher see Table 3. These descriptive results provide an answer to RQ1. They indicate that monitoring the partner on a SNS might be more common and apparently socially more accepted than monitoring the partner offline. The first four hypotheses predicted that SNS jealousy would be related to trait jealousy H1 , monitoring behavior H2 , SNS use, especially use for grooming H3 , and need for popularity H4.
H6 expected a negative relationship with relationship satisfaction. To test the hypotheses these variables were simultaneously entered as predictors in a regression analysis, in which we also controlled for gender. The results support H1, H2, and H4. To examine the moderating role of self-esteem, separate regressions with SNS jealousy as dependent variable were calculated for low- and high-self-esteem subjects. In the first block, trait jealousy, monitoring behavior, relationship satisfaction, and gender were included as predictors.
In the second block, frequency of login, SNS intensity, SNS use for profile maintenance, and SNS use for grooming were entered, and finally need for popularity was entered in the third block. Blockwise entering of the variables allowed us to detect whether the indicators of SNS use and need for popularity explained additional variance over and above the relationship variables and gender.
H5 predicted that the effects of SNS use and need for popularity would be moderated by self-esteem. That is, different Beta weights were expected for low- and high-self-esteem individuals. For individuals low in self-esteem, gender and relationship satisfaction had no significant effect. Entering the SNS use variables resulted in a nonsignificant increase of adjusted R 2 to.
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Entering need for popularity resulted in a significant increase of adjusted R 2 to. For individuals high in self-esteem, a slightly different picture emerged. The SNS use variables increased the amount of explained variance significantly to an adjusted R 2 of. That is, the effect of need for popularity was much stronger for low self-esteem individuals, and SNS use only had an effect for high-self-esteem individuals.
Trait jealousy was a significant predictor only for low-self-esteem individuals. The effect of monitoring behavior, however, turned out to be stronger for high-self-esteem individuals. Relationship satisfaction had a marginally significant negative effect on SNS jealousy, but only for high-self-esteem individuals. H6 received only partial support. These results indicate that the effects of trait jealousy, monitoring behavior, and relationships satisfaction on SNS jealousy are also moderated by self-esteem. To test the hypotheses these variables and gender as control variable were simultaneously entered in a regression analysis.
This supports H7 and H8.
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To test the moderating role of self-esteem H10 , separate regression analyses predicting SNS relationship happiness for low- and high-self-esteem respondents were conducted. Gender and relationship satisfaction were added as predictors in block 1; the SNS use variables in block 2, and need for popularity was added in block 3. For low self-esteem individuals, the following picture emerged. Women tended to experience more SNS relationship happiness than men.
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Adding SNS use increased the adjusted R 2 to. The effect of gender was no longer significant, and the impact of relationship satisfaction became stronger. Adding need for popularity led to a marginally significant increase of adjusted R 2 to. No other effects were significant. For high-self-esteem individuals, a different picture emerged.