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In Japan, the construction of suburbs has boomed since the end of World War II and many cities are experiencing the urban sprawl effect. In Malaysia , suburbs are common, especially in areas surrounding the Klang Valley , which is the largest conurbation in the country.

An International Perspective

These suburbs also serve as major housing areas and commuter towns. Terraced houses , semi-detached houses and shophouses are common concepts in suburbs. In certain areas such as Klang , Subang Jaya and Petaling Jaya , suburbs form the core of these places. The latter one has been turned into a satellite city of Kuala Lumpur. Suburbs are also evident in other major conurbations in the country including Penang e. Pulau Tikus , Ipoh e. Bercham , Johor Bahru e. Tebrau , Kota Kinabalu e.

Likas , Kuching e. Stampin , Melaka City e. Batu Berendam and Alor Setar e.

Suburbs typically have longer travel times to work than traditional neighborhoods. This is due to three factors: In the suburban system, most trips from one component to another component requires that cars enter a collector road [ citation needed ] , no matter how short or long the distance is.

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This is compounded by the hierarchy of streets, where entire neighborhoods and subdivisions are dependent on one or two collector roads. Because all traffic is forced onto these roads, they are often heavy with traffic all day. If a traffic crash occurs on a collector road, or if road construction inhibits the flow, then the entire road system may be rendered useless until the blockage is cleared. The traditional "grown" grid, in turn, allows for a larger number of choices and alternate routes.

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Suburban systems of the sprawl type are also quite inefficient for cyclists or pedestrians, as the direct route is usually not available for them either [ citation needed ]. This encourages car trips even for distances as low as several hundreds of yards or meters which may have become up to several miles or kilometers due to the road network. Improved sprawl systems, though retaining the car detours , possess cycle paths and footpaths connecting across the arms of the sprawl system, allowing a more direct route while still keeping the cars out of the residential and side streets.

According to Governing, Cities and Localities section More commonly, central cities seek ways to tax nonresidents working downtown — known as commuter taxes — as property tax bases dwindle. Taken together, these two groups of taxpayers represent a largely untapped source of potential revenue that cities may begin to target more aggressively, particularly if they're struggling. According to struggling cities, this will help bring in a substantial revenue for the city which is a great way to tax the people who make the most use of the highways and repairs.

The history of suburbia is part of the study of urban history , which focuses on the origins, growth, diverse typologies, culture, and politics of suburbs, as well as on the gendered and family-oriented nature of suburban space. Many suburbs are based on a heterogeneous society of working-class and minority residents, many of whom want to own their own house. Mary Corbin Sies argues that it is necessary to examine how "suburb" is defined as well as the distinction made between cities and suburbs, geography, economic circumstances, and the interaction of numerous factors that move research beyond acceptance of stereotyping and its influence on scholarly assumptions.

Suburbs and suburban living have been the subject for a wide variety of films, books, television shows and songs. In his one-act opera Trouble in Tahiti , Leonard Bernstein skewers American suburbia, which produces misery instead of happiness. The American photojournalist Bill Owens documented the culture of suburbia in the s, most notably in his book Suburbia.

The song " Little Boxes " by Malvina Reynolds lampoons the development of suburbia and its perceived bourgeois and conformist values, [49] while the song Subdivisions by the Canadian band Rush also discusses suburbia, as does Rocking the Suburbs by Ben Folds. The album The Suburbs by the Canadian-based alternative band Arcade Fire dealt with aspects of growing up in suburbia, suggesting aimlessness, apathy and endless rushing are ingrained into the suburban culture and mentality.

Suburb The Musical, was written by Robert S. Cohen and David Javerbaum. Over the Hedge is a syndicated comic strip written and drawn by Michael Fry and T. It tells the story of a raccoon, turtle, a squirrel, and their friends who come to terms with their woodlands being taken over by suburbia, trying to survive the increasing flow of humanity and technology while becoming enticed by it at the same time. A film adaptation of Over the Hedge was produced in British television series such as The Good Life , Butterflies and The Fall and Rise of Reginald Perrin have depicted suburbia as well-manicured but relentlessly boring, and its residents as either overly conforming or prone to going stir crazy.

This trope was also used in the episode of The X-Files " Arcadia " and on one level of the video game Psychonauts. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Suburbs disambiguation , Suburbia disambiguation , and Suburban disambiguation. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

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The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. August Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Bibliography of suburbs Boomburbs Developed environments Ethnoburb Faubourg Levittown, Pennsylvania List of largest suburbs by population London commuter belt Microdistrict Penurbia Settlement types Suburbia bashing Urban rural fringe. Geo-statistical modeling to evaluate the socio-economic impacts of households in the context of low-lying areas conversion in Colombo metropolitan region-Sri Lanka.


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Archived from the original on 20 April Ombudsman of New Zealand. Archived from the original PDF on 27 January Retrieved 18 April Scholars of Shen Zhou. Archived from the original on 12 July Retrieved 2 January Papers from the Institute of Archaeology. Retrieved 17 March Annals of the Association of American Geographers.

When America Became Suburban. University of Minnesota Press, Archived from the original on 14 August Retrieved 27 April Managing Urban America , But, we will never know how natural it was, because of the massive federal subsidy that eased and accelerated it, in the form of tax, transportation and housing policies. Between fear and hope: Lanham, Maryland Prince George's County: City schools and the American dream: Problems and issues of diversity in the United States.

Suburbs lose young whites to cities.

Suburban Form - An International Perspective (Electronic book text)

Sunday May 9, Retrieved on May 10, Making the World Urban from the Outside In , by Roger Keil, arises from an eight-year research programme on global suburbanisms. Suburban Planet explores the diversity of suburban forms, shaped by historical trajectories, governance and infrastructure, and reasserts the importance of politics across each of these spheres.

The book is a concise and well-structured contribution to urban thinking, showing that the challenge of urban growth is not only a scalar issue, but also a transformation of the ways we live and work in cities. Suburban Planet takes a different approach to popular critiques that lambast suburbia as an essentially problematic or banal urban form. Suburban Planet therefore puts forward a series of arguments on spatial development and everyday practices in suburbs. In so doing, it contributes to the ongoing debate on reconstructing urban theory , positioning an alternative perspective to the planetary urbanisation thesis.

It offers more questions than conclusions on urbanisation, but is nonetheless valuable to inform research agendas and methodologies. The perspective set out in Suburban Planet outlines the distinctive forms of suburbanisation at play and draws connections with infrastructural technologies and the political economy of urban development. The book is structured as a combination of conceptual, thematic and historical chapters, focusing on suburban processes through the categories of governance, land and infrastructure.

The initial chapters explore suburban theory and empirical approaches to the suburbs, followed by in-depth case studies comparing the US suburbs of Lakewood, California and Ferguson, Missouri.

Suburb - Wikipedia

These cases show the contradictions apparent, even within cases of North American suburbia: Instead, Ferguson is poorer, more diverse and, as shown by the shooting of Michael Brown and protests , the site of police brutality and widespread unrest. The suburban lens reveals the complexity of urbanisation with greater clarity.

Suburbs created the imperative for metropolitan governance as a fix to manage the mutual dependencies between city centres and newer suburban areas. The premise that suburban areas are monotonous, inert environments is put to a test through investigation of the complexity of those suburban settings and the dynamic physical changes that have taken place since their inception.

The New Urban Sociology. Shape of the Suburbs. How to Move to Canada. The Landscape Urbanism Reader. Van Der Hoeven Frank. Retrofitting Suburbia, Updated Edition. The Skycourt and Skygarden. Urban Transport Environment and Equity. The Wealth and Poverty of Regions. The Art of Shaping the Metropolis.

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