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Soury went so far as to claim that the ancient belief or dogma of creation was an obsolete doctrine, alongside other philosophies such as those of Hegel, Schopenhauer and Hartmann, in light of the theories of Lamarck, Goethe, Darwin and Haeckel, who had developed a theory of evolution as an individual case of the cosmic hypothesis of conservation and transformation of physical forces. Medina was a curious character, trained in Cuba, the USA and Germany, with an interesting literary career Instituto…, Moreno Nieto argued that metaphysics was necessary to explain the phenomenon of life and he critiqued Raspail, Haeckel and Spencer's theses on the subject, whilst attacking the Darwinists and expressing surprise that Darwinism had been so successful in Germany thanks to Haeckel's work as a professor at the University of Jena.

The seventh volume of the Revista Europea covered Eduardo Hartmann's article on Haeckel, which had appeared in the Deutsche Rundschau , as part of the journal's attempt to feature the opinions of foreign scholars on evolution theory.

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This was the first work of Haeckel's to be translated into Spanish. But he made some fairly harsh statements about Haeckel's doctrine Huelin, 15 feb. He was already known for his support for Darwinism at the university, which had unleashed heated debate about evolution in Galician society Caro Baroja, jul. Madrid Moreno , devoted to explaining Haeckel's Kingdom of protists.

The author praises Haeckel for systematizing these beings that did not fit easily into the animal and vegetable kingdoms Without going into much detail, we should also mention two other figures affiliated with the Free Educational Institution: This diversity is clearly reflected in their stance on Darwinian evolution.

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As Fraga has pointed out, Darwinism had little impact on naturalists' scientific practice, although it did influence their taxonomic activities and helped to change the Cuvier model of nature and to draw more attention to variability. It should be pointed out that Luis Simarro was undoubtedly the person who introduced evolutionist hypotheses into Spanish histology, especially after his spell in Paris studying under Mathias Duval. Simarro's own histological collections clearly show an evolutionist approach in his histological research.

In his lectures, Cajal discussed biological problems, based on the theses of Weissmann, Darwin and Spencer.

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Despite this, we cannot conclude that Cajal entirely agreed, from a theoretical standpoint, with all of Haeckel's evolutionist theses, since in the pages of that same journal, in the same year, he seemed closer to being a positivist in favor of the hypothesis of evolution. Who knows if, over the centuries, when mankind is optimally adapted to the environment in which he grows and has perfected his optical and acoustical registers, and the brain permits combinations of ideas that are more complex, whether science will be able to decipher the most general laws of matter, within which, as a particular example of them, the extraordinary phenomenon of life and thought will perhaps be enshrined?

We cannot provide a comprehensive analysis here of the impact of evolutionism on the anarchist movement and radical republicanism.

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We do know that many members of the radical republican movement espoused positivist Krausism, which we outlined earlier. Part of his scientific work was included on the Catholic church's Index of prohibited books, and he was removed from his faculty position in natural history at the University of Barcelona for some time.

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He also brought Spaniards to the Congress of Free Thinkers in Rome, chartering a boat, the Mallorca, to make the trip from Barcelona to Civitta Vechia with over two hundred people on board. He also recalled a card from Haeckel that bore a portrait of him with an anthropomorphic skull in hand, and the following phrase in Spanish: Darwinian ideas can be seen in Spanish journalism and literature in the last third of the nineteenth century, generally in rather simplified versions. The genres they appear in the most are poetry, the short story, the novel and drama.

Although the brutal naturalism of Emile Zola and his followers was a new development that encouraged the presence of Darwinism in literature of the period, references to evolutionism were not limited to the realist movement, for reasons we hope to set out here.

The narrative deals with the long-standing conflict between materialists and spiritualists, stressing Darwinism as an essential element; the author, who, like many intellectuals, was a philosophical dualist — especially after Haeckel's work with its unitary monism of science and religion — opts for a third way being opened up by positivism at the time. In Belmonte's story, a character named Juan, who represents scientists, believes in the origin of pre-existing forms. He cites Haeckel and Darwin in relation to the origin of the races, with which he is in favor.

This is followed by the mocking and contemptuous response of Gualberto, the spiritualist character. This debate turns out to be a dream experienced by a person who is a combination of the two: The story ends with the author advocating for philosophical dualism.

Their scientific premises are used in novels in a variety of ways. Most of the time their names are merely mentioned to support some anatomical, physiological or psychological feature or to mock some aspect of evolution, such as man's descent from the apes.

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In some cases, they mentioned supposed experiments aimed at creating the hypothetical anthropopithecus; these references became more detailed in the early decades of the twentieth century, and the subject was treated as a colossal joke in a novel by Ricardo Baroja. Literary translations published in Spain, above all of French works for the theater or for the general reader, were also an important vehicle for spreading evolutionist ideas. Examining works that contained responses to Darwin's theories in Spain allows us to see the complexity of the evolutionist debate in the second half of the nineteenth century.

At a time of much ideological confrontation, the reception of Darwinist ideas depended on interactions between political, religious and philosophical factors. Indeed, when evolutionist theories crossed the threshold of science and called into question the biblical narrative of creation, theologians, philosophers, politicians, scientists and writers all became involved in the controversy around evolution. Thus, the repercussions of evolutionism in Spain were felt not only in scientific circles but spread to many different cultural media and spaces of knowledge.

Don Gregorio Chil y Naranjo: Cabildo Insular de Gran Canaria. Variabilidad de las especies. Vida Nueva , n. El Museo Universal , n. Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Examen del materialismo moderno Revista Europea , t. The literary and cultural reception of Charles Darwin in Europe. They would later all travel to Rome and to a few other cities in Italy.

Later, she went to Cambridge to see the observatory. There, she visited with astronomers including Sir George Airy, the Astronomer Royal, who had established a new Prime Meridian The Prime Meridian is the imaginary vertical line chosen to represent 0 degrees longitude. It is a reference point for marking the longitude of any other spot on the globe, moving East or West.

Prime Meridian The Prime Meridian is the imaginary vertical line chosen to represent 0 degrees longitude.